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Medieval & Renaissance Manuscripts

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Book of Hours
France, perhaps in Paris or northeastern France, ca. 1465
MS M.1003 fol. 137r

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Christ: Crucifixion -- Christ, cross-nimbed, with crown of thorns, wearing short loin cloth, with blood dropping from wounds, is affixed to tau cross with titulus INRI, with three nails. He is flanked above by sun and moon, and by two thieves, each tied tied to cross, both with leg wounds, left thief looking up toward Christ and right thief looking down. At left are: two Holy Women, nimbed, veiled, wearing wimple and Evangelist John, looking up at Christ, supporting Virgin Mary with right hand touching her right side, as she kneels with head inclined, and joined hands. At right are Longinus of Jerusalem, wearing armor, raising right hand toward Christ, holding shield with left hand, looking toward man holding spear with left hand, touching with left hand, left shoulder of Longinus. Scene within landscape with hills, trees and city in background.
Medallions in margins, from bottom to top:
1) Christ: Flagellation -- Christ, cross-nimbed, with crown of thorns, possibly beardless, wearing short loincloth, stands before column, His arms behind Him, His legs bound. He is flanked by two men looking on, one wearing hat and holding staff, and by two torturers, one wearing hat, and holding scourge and the other holding scourge with both hands behind his head. Scene in windowed room, with tile floor; tunic of Christ hanging over windowsill, hat on floor.
2) Christ: mocked -- Christ, cross-nimbed, blindfolded, possibly beardless, holding with both hands branch and stalk of wheat (?), and wearing robe, is seated on canopied throne, flanked by two men, both wearing hat, one touching right arm of Christ with both hands, and kneeling on one knee and the other touching left leg of Christ with his left hand, raising right hand as if to slap Him.
3) Christ: Crucifixion, stripped of Garments -- Soldier, wearing helmet, holds tunic of Christ, cross-nimbed, nude, His arms partly in sleeves of tunic. Soldier stands between them looking on; another stands behind Christ, raising club (?) in right hand and holding spear in left hand. Man stands partly visible at edge of medallion. Cross is on ground between Christ and soldiers. Scene in landscape beneath starry sky.
Margins decorated with floreate ornament including rose, strawberry and viola, and inhabited by dog biting itself, hybrid animal and peacock.

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