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Medieval & Renaissance Manuscripts

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Book of Hours
France, Paris, ca. 1485-1490
MS M.231 fol. 122v

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Christ: Crucifixion -- Christ, crossed nimbus, wearing crown of thorns, bleeding from wounds, wearing short loincloth, is affixed with three nails to cross with titulus INRI. He is flanked by two thieves, their arms tied over crossbar of crosses, bleeding from wounds in arms. Left foot of thief on right is tied to cross. Sun is above left, next to titulus; moon is above head of thief at right. At left below stand Evangelist John, nimbed, and Virgin Mary, nimbed and veiled, head inclined, with hands clasped at breast. Soldiers stand behind cross at right, one with shield with human face, several holding spears. Bones, and skull in foreground.
Scene in landscape with city, with dome on tower, in background.
Vignettes, lower margin (from right to left, in narrative sequence):
1) Christ: Betrayal and Arrest and Apostle, Peter: cutting off Ear of Malchus -- Christ, crossed nimbus, embraced and kissed by Judas, is surrounded by soldiers, one holding His right arm. With His right hand, Christ grasps sheath of sword of Peter, nimbed, holding hilt of sword with right hand and sheath with left hand. He stands behind Malchus, wearing helmet, his mouth wide open, raising right hand, and holding lantern with left hand. In background is wattle fence.
2) Pilate: washing Hands and Christ: before Pilate -- Pilate, wearing pointed hat and knotted sash around waist, is seated on bench, holding hands over basin. Servant stands before him, pouring water from pitcher in right hand, into the basin, held in his left hand. At right, Christ, crossed nimbus, His hands crossed in front, stands flanked by two soldiers. Other soldiers are in background.
Vignettes, left margin (top to bottom, in narrative sequence):
3) Christ: Flagellation -- Christ, crossed nimbus, stands behind column, hands crossed and tied around column. He is flanked by two torturers each raising hand holding scourge.
4) Christ: bearing Cross -- Christ, crossed nimbus, carries cross on left shoulder, wrapping both arms around cross bar of cross. Behind Him, are Evangelist John (?) and Virgin Mary, nimbed and veiled with wimple, and soldier raising rod in right hand. At right is soldier holding end of rope around waist of Christ.

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