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Medieval & Renaissance Manuscripts

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England, Oxford, between 1212 and 1220
MS M.43 fol. 24r

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1) Stephen Protomartyr: Stoning -- One of three executioners holds stones in skirt of tunic; all raise stones above Stephen, tonsured, wearing priest's vestments with stole and maniple over joined hands raised. He kneels beside Saul (Paul) seated amid foliage, raising right hand toward the protomartyr.
2) Lawrence of Rome: Scene, Martyrdom -- Hand of God emerges from cloudy arc of heaven above two executioners, one with forked implement and the other with grapnel, prodding Lawrence, nimbed, tonsured, nude on gridiron. Man, kneeling, with bellows fans fire of sticks stirred by man holding rod. Emperor Decius, crowned, sits on cushioned bench, raising right hand and holding floreate scepter in left hand.
3) Vincent of Saragossa: Scene, Torture -- Hand of God emerges from cloudy arc of heaven above Vincent, nimbed, half nude, bound to X-cross (saltire), attacked with grapnels by five executioners, one kneeling.
4) Hippolytus the Jailer: Scene, Martyrdom -- Emperor Decius, crowned, sits on cushioned bench and holds scepter in left hand. With right hand, he indicates two horsemen, one with scourge or whip, dragging Hippolytus, tonsured, nude, with feet bound and arms bound behind.
Scenes within architectural frames.

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