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Medieval & Renaissance Manuscripts

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Book of Hours
France, Rouen, ca. 1480
MS M.131 fol. 67r

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Christ: Crucifixion -- Christ, crossed nimbus, with crown of thorns, wearing short loincloth, is affixed with three nails to cross bearing titulus INRI. At base of cross are bones. He is flanked above by sun and moon, and below by two thieves, both wearing short loincloths, bound to crosses with arms over cross piece, one looking up, and the other looking down. At left are Veronica of Rome holding sudarium; Longinus, wearing hat, piercing side of Christ with spear; and Virgin Mary, nimbed and veiled, swooning, her left arm held by left hand of Evangelist John, nimbed. At right are two men wearing hats, one possibly Longinus of Jerusalem, indicating Christ; one man wearing cap; and soldiers wearing helmets and armor, holding spears, one holding shield.
Scene in landscape with trees and building atop hill in background.
Margin, left:
Prophet, wearing fur lined hat and garment trimmed with fur, holding in right hand scroll bearing pseudo-inscription.
Margin, right:
1) Christ: in Gethsemane and Christ: Betrayal, Arrival in Garden -- Christ, crossed nimbus, sweating blood, with joined hands raised, kneels looking up at chalice and wafer (host) atop rocky outcrop. In foreground, three apostles, all nimbed, are asleep on ground. In background, figure approaches through gate, and outside wattle fence are soldiers.
2) Christ: Betrayal and Apostle, Peter: cutting off Ear of Malchus -- In front of group of soldiers holding spears, Christ, crossed nimbus, is kissed by Judas. In His right hand Christ holds ear of Malchus, crouching; behind him, Peter, nimbed and tonsured, sheathes sword. Two more apostles, nimbed stand behind Peter.
Margin, lower, right to left:
1) Christ: before Pilate and Pilate: washing Hands -- Christ, crossed nimbus, hands crossed and bound, is flanked by two soldiers, each with one hand on His shoulders. Soldiers, carrying spears, one with shield, follow. They stand before Pilate, wearing hat, garment lined with vair, sitting on throne with canopy. He turns to right reaching toward bowl held by servant with cloth over left arm.
2) Christ: bearing Cross -- Preceded by soldier looking back and holding rope, Christ, crossed nimbus, holds cross with both hands over his left shoulder. He is followed by soldiers, the foremost raising stick or rod with right hand.
Scene in landscape with trees and building in background.

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